Bioelectrochemistry is a rapidly growing area that harnesses the structural and functional versatility of biomolecules with simple yet effective electronic signal acquisition. A very recent application of bioelectrochemistry is represented by biofuel cells (BFCs) that may become a sustainable route towards clean and portable low-power electrical energy. Biofuel cells are based on two electrodes coated with catalysts, with the anode oxidizing fuel and acting as an electron source and the cathode reducing the oxidant acting as an electron sink. The conversion of the organic substrates into electricity is catalyzed by enzymes, which can be within an organism (microbial fuel cells, MFC), or alone (enzymatic biofuel cells, EBFC).
In the actual contest of a high demand for miniature and sustainable electrical power sources to develop autonomous self-sufficient micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) implants, micro machining the BFC technology is of high interest. Micro BFCs could be implemented as power source for a number of biomedical devices, including cardiac pacemaker, neurostimulators, hearing and vision devices, drug pumps, bladder-control valves and others.
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