written_title.gif (3579 bytes)

click for animated logo


Characterisation of the Physical, Chemical and Electronic Properties of Solids on the Nanometre Scale



Recent Publications by the Positron Group


Positron Beams and their applications

A book edited by Paul Coleman aimed at graduate students and scientists interested in this field. Click above for further details



Encyclopedia of Applied Spectroscopy, ed. David L Andrews (Wiley-VCG, 2009)

An encyclopaedia chapter on 'Positron Spectroscopy' by Paul Coleman. Introduction: Fundamentals: Experimental Methods: Examples of Research using Positron Spectroscopies: Glossary: Further Reading.


Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy of Defects in Semiconductors


“The study of lattice damage using slow positrons following low-energy B+ implantation of silicon”

RM Gwilliam, AP Knights, A Nejim, B Sealy, CP Burrows, F Malik and PG Coleman

Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 175-7 62-67 (2001)


 “Growth temperature dependence for the formation of vacancy clusters in Si/Si0.64/Ge0.36/Si structures”

AP Knights, RM Gwilliam, BJ Sealy, TJ Grasby, CP Parry, DJF Fulgoni, PJ Phillips, TE Whall, EHC Parker and PG Coleman

J. Appl. Phys. 89, 76-79 (2001)


“The influence of substrate temperature on the evolution of  ion implantation induced defects in epitaxial 6H-SiC”

W Anwand, G Brauer, P G Coleman, H Wirth and W Skorupa

Appl. Surf. Sci. 194, 127-130 (2002)


“Simple expression for vacancy concentrations at half ion range following MeV ion implantation of silicon”

P G Coleman, C P Burrows, and A P Knights

Appl. Phys. Lett., 80, 947-9 (2002)


“At-temperature annealing of near-surface vacancy-type defects observed by positronium formation spectroscopy”

P G Coleman, F Malik and A P Knights

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter, 14, 681-8 (2002)


“Room-temperature evolution of vacancy-type damage created by 2 keV B+ implantation of Si”

R.M. Gwilliam, A.P. Knights, C.P. Burrows and P.G. Coleman*

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B20, 427-430 (2001)


 “Defects in GaN films studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy”

XD Pi, PG Coleman, CL Tseng, CP Burrows, B Yavich and WN Wang

J Phys.:Condens. Mat. 14, L243-L248 (2002)


“Photoluminescence studies of type IIa and nitrogen-doped CVD diamond”

A Wotherspoon, JW Steeds, PG Coleman, D Wolverson,  JJ Davies, S Lawson and J Butler

Diamond and Diamond-Related Materials 11, 692-6 (2002)


“Fluorine in silicon: Diffusion, trapping, and precipitation”

XD Pi, CP Burrows, PG Coleman

Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 155901 (2003 )


“Positron annihilation spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for process monitoring of buried oxide layer formation in Si”

PG Coleman, AP Knights and MJ Anc

J. Appl. Phys. 93, 698-701 (2003)


“Oxygen-related vacancy-type defects in ion-implanted silicon studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy”

XD Pi, PG Coleman, RM Gwilliam and BJ Sealy

J. Phys.: Condens.Matter 15 S2825 – 33 (2003)


“Study of defects in ion-implanted silicon using photoluminescence and positron annihilation”

R Harding, G Davies, PG Coleman, CP Burrows, J Wong-Leung

Physica B 340-2, 738-742 (2003)


“Positron annihilation spectroscopy of the interface between nanocrystalline Si and SiO2

XD Pi, PG Coleman, R Harding, GDavies, RM Gwilliam and BJ Sealy

 Physica B 340, 1094-1098 (2003)


“Characterization of the interface region during the agglomeration of silicon nanocrystals in silicon dioxide”

X. D. Pi and P. G. Coleman, R. Harding, G. Davies and R.M. Gwilliam

J. Appl. Phys., 95, 8155-59 (2004)


“The Impact of Growth Conditions on Vacancy-Type Defects in Silicon-Germanium Structures Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy”

Kareem M. Shoukri, Yaser M. Haddara, A. P. Knights and P. G. Coleman

Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 131923 (2005)


“Direct high-resolution determination of vacancy-type defect profiles in ion-implanted silicon”
P G Coleman, R E Mason, M van Dyken and A P Knights
J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17 S2323-S2330 (2005)

“Optical Attenuation in Defect-Engineered Silicon Rib Waveguides”

P.J. Foster, J. K. Doylend, P. Mascher, and A.P. Knights and P. G. Coleman

J. Appl. Phys. 99, 073101 (2005)


“Identification by photoluminescence and positron annihilation of vacancy and interstitial intrinsic defects in ion-implanted silicon”

G Davies, R Harding , Jin Tan , PG Coleman , CP Burrows , J Wong-Leung

J. Appl. Phys. 100, 073501 (2006)


“Fluorine-vacancy complexes in ultra-shallow B-implanted Si”

Dana Abdulmalik , PG Coleman, NEB Cowern , AJ Smith , BJ Sealy , W Lerch , S Paul , F Cristiano

Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 052114 (2006)


“The origin of the red luminescence in Mg-doped GaN”

D Wolverson, Shanshan Zeng , Gazi Aliev , J. Davies , S Bingham , D Abdulmalik , PG Coleman , Tao Wang , P Parbrook

Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 022107 (2006)  


 “Self-implantation of Cz-Si: Clustering and annealing of defects”

DA Abdulmalik, PG Coleman, IY Al-Qaradawi

Appl. Surf. Sci 252  3209-3214 (2006)


“Characterization of a SiC/SiC composite by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and positron spectroscopies”

G Brauer, W Anwand, F Eichhorn, W Skorupa, C Hofer, C Teichert, J Kuriplach, J Cizek, I Prochazka, PG Coleman, T Nozawa, A Kohyama

Appl. Surf. Sci 252  3342-3351 (2006)


“Photoluminescence response of ion-implanted silicon”

Ruth E Harding , Gordon Davies, S Hayama , PG Coleman , CP Burrows , J Wong-Leung

Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 181917 (2006)

"Implantation profile of Na-22 continuous energy spectrum positrons in silicon"
PJ Foster, P Mascher, AP Knights and PG Coleman
J. Appl. Phys. 101, 043702-1-7 (2007)

"Fluorine-vacancy complexes in Si-SiGe-Si structures"
D.A. Abdulmalik and P.G. Coleman, H.A.W. El Mubarek and P. Ashburn
J. Appl. Phys. 102, 013530-1-4 (2007)

"Monovacancy and Interstitial Migration in Ion-Implanted Silicon"
P.G. Coleman and C.P. Burrows
Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 265502 (2007)

"Activation energies for the formation and evaporation of vacancy clusters in silicon"
D.A. Abdulmalik and P.G. Coleman
Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 095503 (2008)

"Observation of vacancy defects at silicon grain boundaries formed via suppressed solid phase epitaxy"
K.J. Dudeck, W.D. Walters, A.P. Knights and P.G. Coleman
J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41, 055102 (2008).

"Modification of Silicon Waveguide Structures using Ion Implantation Induced Defects"
A P Knights, K J Dudeck, W D Walters and P G Coleman
Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 75-77 (2008).

"Enhancement of phosphorus activation in vacancy engineered thin silicon-on-insulator substrates"
A.J. Smith, R.M. Gwilliam, V. Stolojan, A.P. Knights, P.G. Coleman, A. Kallis and S.H. Yeong
J. Appl. Phys. 106 103514 (2009)

"Probing the formation of Silicon nano-crystals (Si-ncs) using Variable Energy Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy"
AP Knights, JDB Bradley, O Hulko, DV Stevanovic, CJ Edwardson, A Kallis, PG Coleman, IF Crowe, MP Halsall and RM Gwilliam
J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 262 012031 (2011)

"Evolution of vacancy-type defects in silicon-on-insulator structures"
PG Coleman, D Nash, CJ Edwardson, AP Knights and RM Gwilliam

J. Appl. Phys. 110, 016104 (2011)

"Activation Energies for Vacancy Migration, Clustering and Annealing in Silicon"
P G Coleman
J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 265, 012001 (2011)

 "Vacancy-type defects created by single-shot and chain ion implantation of silicon”

P.G. Coleman, C.J. Edwardson, A.P.Knights and R.M. Gwilliam

New J. Phys. 14 025007 (2012). 

Positron annihilation studies of fluorine-vacancy complexes in Si and SiGe”

C.J. Edwardson, P.G. Coleman, H. El-Mubarek and A. Gandy

J. Appl. Phys. 111, 073510 (2012).


Direct observation of electron capture and re-emission by the  divacancy via charge transient positron spectroscopy”

C.J. Edwardson, P.G. Coleman, D. J. Paez, J. K. Doylend and A.P. Knights

Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 136401 (2013)

Positron Beam Techniques



“Development of a novel tool for semiconductor process control”

R M Gwilliam, AP Knights, E Wendler, BJ Sealy, CP Burrows and PG Coleman

Mat. Sci. Eng. B, 80 60-64 (2001)


“Optimization of measurement parameters in Doppler broadening spectroscopy”

Pi Xiaodong, C P Burrows and P G Coleman

Appl. Surf. Sci. 194 255-259 (2002)


A technique for positron spectroscopy of monovacancies formed by low-temperature ion implantation of silicon”

RE Mason, PG Coleman

Appl. Surf. Sci 252  3228-3230 (2006)


“Real-time full spectrum fitting of beam-based Doppler broadening data”

PG Coleman, CP Burrows, RE Mason

Appl. Surf. Sci 252 3183-3187 (2006)

"'Back to the future: polarised positron beams"
P.G. Coleman and N.R. Potter
Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 101-103 (2008).

"Development of a Spin-Polarised Positron Beam"
P. G. Coleman and A Kallis
J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 262 012016 (2011)

"Ice and Atoms: experiments with laboratory-based positron beams"
PG Coleman
J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 262 012015 (2011)

Positron Re-Emission Spectroscopy (1996-2002)



"Energy Spectroscopy of Positrons Re-emitted from Ag(100)"
A Goodyear, A P Knights and P G Coleman
Physics Letters A 212 221-226 (1996)

"Silicon Carbide: A New Positron Moderator"
J. Störmer, A Goodyear, W Anwand, G Brauer, P G Coleman and W Triftshäuser
J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 8 L89-94 (1996)

"The Effect of Thermalisation Length and Work Function on Epithermal Positron Emission from Solids"
A P Knights and P G Coleman
Surface Sci. 367 238-44 (1996)

"Measurement of the Energy Spectrum of Secondary Electrons Ejected from Solids by Positron Impact"
N Overton and P G Coleman
Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 305 (1997)


“Positron Re-emission from Electrodeposited NiW”

RI Grynszpan and PG Coleman

Meas. Sci. Technol. 12 163-166 (2001)


“Re-emission of slow positrons from tungsten at elevated temperatures”

I.Y. Al-Qaradawi and P G Coleman

Appl. Surf. Sci. 194, 20-23 (2002)


“Tests of a diamond field-assisted moderator”

I.Y. Al-Qaradawi, P A Sellin and P G Coleman

Appl. Surf. Sci. 194, 29-31  (2002)



Positron Microscopy (1997-99)



"The UEA Positron Re-emission Microscope: First Images"

Coleman P G, Goodyear A and Burrows C P 1997
Appl. Surf. Sci. 116 184

"Positron re-emission microscopy of perfect and O+-implanted SiC"
Burrows C.P. and Coleman P.G.
J.Phys.:Condens. Matter, 10 10399 (1998)

"Lateral Near Surface Vacancy Migration In O+ Implanted Sic Studied By Positron Reemission Microscopy"
C. P. Burrows, A. P. Knights And P. G. Coleman
Appl. Surf. Sci. 149, 135-139 (1999)


Positron Beam Studies of Thin Films and Surface Layers



“Organo-metallic interfaces studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy”

C Tucker, FA Smith and PG Coleman

J.Phys.:Condens. Matter 13 1857-67 (2001)


“The migration of defects and nitrogen atoms in nitrided surface layers of austenitic stainless steel followed by microscopic methods”

Y Jirásková, G Brauer, O Schneeweiss, C Blawert , W Anwand, and P G Coleman

Appl. Surf. Sci. 194 145-149 (2002)


“Fatigue Properties of Mn-doped Lead Zirconate Titanate Thin Film Capacitors”

Q Zhang, DJ Keeble, PG Coleman and R E Mason

 Int. Ferroelectrics 62, 119-125 (2004)


“Variable energy positron beam analysis of vacancy defects in laser ablated SrTiO3 thin films on SrTiO3

DJ Keeble, Stephen McGuire , RE Mason , PG Coleman , Y Koutsonas , T Jackson

J. Appl. Phys. 100, 044109-1-6 (2006)


“Corrosion properties of duplex Ti-6Al-4V alloy in chloride media using electrochemical and positron annhilation spectroscopy techniques”

M.M. Khaled, B.S. Yilbas, I. Y. Al-Qaradawi, P.G. Coleman, D. Abdulmalik, Z. S. Seddigi, A. Abulkibash, B. F. Abu-Sharkh and M.M. Emad

Surf. Coatings Technol. 201, 932-7 (2006)


“Characterization of thermally oxidized-Ti/SiO2 gate dielectric stacks on 4H-SiC substrate”

R Mahapatra, Nipapan Poolamai , Sanatan Chattopadhyay , Nick Wright , Amit Chakroborty , Karl Coleman , PG Coleman , CP Burrows

J. Appl. Phys. 88, 072910 (2006)

"Structural and phase changes in amorphous solid water films revealed by positron beam spectroscopy"
YC Wu, A Kallis, J Jiang and PG Coleman
Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 066103 (2010)

"Enhancement of electroluminescence from TiO2/p+-Si heterostructure-based devices through engineering of oxygen vacancies in TiO2"
Y.Y. Zhang, X.Y. Ma, P.L. Chen, D.S. Li, X.D. Pi, D.R. Yang and P. G. Coleman
Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 252102 (2009)

"A Positron Annihilation Study of Corrosion of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy by NaOH"
YC Wu, T Zhai and PG Coleman
Metall. and Metal Trans. A (accepted for publication, 2011)

"Positron and Positronium Studies of Silica Aerogel"
CJ Edwardson, MDW Grogan, TA Birks and PG Coleman
J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 262 012018 (2011)

"Corrosion of Pure Aluminium and Aluminium Alloy: a Comparative Study Using a Slow Positron Beam"
YC Wu, PH Li, XD Xue, SJ Wang, A Kallis, PG Coleman and T Zhai
J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 262 012065 (2011)

Porosity and Crystallization of Water Ice Films Studied by Positron and Positronium Annihilation

Y.C. Wu, J. Jiang, S.J. Wang, A. Kallis and P.G. Coleman

Phys. Rev. B 84, 064123 (2011)

Defects in TiO2 films on p+-Si studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy”

P. G. Coleman, C.J. Edwardson, Anbang Zhang, Xiangyang Ma, Xiaodong Pi and Deren Yang

Mat. Sci. Eng. B 177, 625– 628 (2012).

“Positron annihilation studies of the AlOx/SiO2/Si interface in solar cell structures”

C.J. Edwardson, P.G. Coleman, T.-T. A. Li, A. Cuevas and S. Ruffell

J. Appl. Phys. 111, 053515 (2012).


“Observations of the growth and sublimation of water ice films by variable-energy positron annihilation spectroscopy”

S. Townrow, P.G. Coleman, Y.C. Wu, J. Jiang and S.J. Wang

J.Phys.:Conf. Ser., in press (2013)


Positron-Atom Scattering


"Coupling between positron-atom scattering channels above the first inelastic threshold"

P.G. Coleman, N. Cheesman and E.R. Lowry
Phys. Rev. Lett. 172, 173201 (2009)

"Coupling between positronium formation and elastic positron scattering channels in the rare gases"
PM Jay and PG Coleman
Phys. Rev. A 82 012701 (2010)

"Energy dependence of the positronium formation cross section in argon"
MJ Thornton and PG Coleman
J.Phys.:Atom.Molec.Phys. 44, 145201 (2011)

“Positronium formation in molecular oxygen”

J. Archer, S.M. Trilov and P.G. Coleman

J.Phys.:Conf.Ser. in press (2013)

Positronium formation in methanol and ethanol”

P.G. Coleman, N.J. Culver and B.M.W. M. Dowler

Phys. Rev. A 87, 012712 (2013)



   Link to main Bath page  Physics