Home

Research

Group

Publications

Recent projects

Research interests

The principal research interests of our group fall into the three interrelated research areas of environmental, analytical and water sciences. We are particularly interested in water pollution and novel technologies used to decrease contamination of water. Our recent interests are related to urban water and human epidemiology.

Environmental pollution

Environmental epidemiology

Water quality/water treatment

Analytical chemistry

 

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

Emerging micropollutants in the environment

Emerging environmental contaminants including pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, personal care products and endocrine disruptors are a group of compounds without well understood occurrence, fate and effects in the environment and human h-ealth but with the potential to cause such effects. Our research concentrates on identifying new micropollutants in environmental matrices, understanding their fate in the environment and identifying their possible effects on humans and the environment. This includes the development of new analytical methodology primarily utilising liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry to identify and quantify micropollutants and their transformation products at low ppt levels.

Selected publications:

Petrie, B., Barden, R. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2015. A review on emerging contaminants in wastewaters and the environment : current knowledge, understudied areas and recommendations for future monitoring. Water Research, 72, pp. 3-27.

Petrie, B., Camacho-Munoz, M., Castrignano, E., Evans, S. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2015. Chiral Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Environmental Analysis of Pharmacologically Active Compounds. LCGC Europe, 2 (28), p. 151.

Evans, S. E., Davies, P., Lubben, A. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2015. Forthcoming. Determination of chiral pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in wastewater and sludge using microwave assisted extraction, solid-phase extraction and chiral liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta, 882, pp. 112-126.

Vazquez-Roig, P., Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Blasco, C. and Picó, Y., 2014.Stereoisomeric profiling of drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals in wastewaters of Valencia (Spain). Science of the Total Environment, 494-495, pp. 49-57.

Petrie, B. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2014. Water Quality Goes Down the Drains. The environmental impact of pharmaceutical drugs. AWE International, May 2014.

Evans, S. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2014. Applications of chiral chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in the analysis of chiral pharmaceuticals in the environment. Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 1 (1), 1.

Bagnall, J., Malia, L., Lubben, A. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2013. Stereoselective biodegradation of amphetamine and methamphetamine in river microcosms. Water Research. 47 (15), pp. 5708-5718.

Baker, D. R. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2013. Spatial and temporal occurrence of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in the aqueous environment and during wastewater treatment: New developments. Science of the Total Environment, 454-455, pp. 442-456.

López-Serna, R., Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Petrović, M. and Barceló, D., 2013. Multi-residue enantiomeric analysis of pharmaceuticals and their active metabolites in the Guadalquivir River basin (South Spain) by chiral liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 405 (18), pp. 5859-5873.

Bagnall, J.P., Evans, S.E., Wort, M.T., Lubben, A.T. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2012. Using chiral liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the analysis of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in surface and wastewater at the enantiomeric level. Journal of Chromatography A, 1249, pp. 115-129.

Kasprzyk-Hordern, B. and Baker, D. R., 2012. Enantiomeric profiling of chiral drugs in wastewater and receiving waters. Environmental Science & Technology, 46 (3), pp. 1681-1691.

Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2010. Pharmacologically active compounds in the environment and their chirality. Chemical Society Reviews, 39 (11), pp. 4466-4503.

Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Dinsdale, R. M. and Guwy, A. J., 2009. The removal of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs during wastewater treatment and its impact on the quality of receiving waters. Water Research, 43 (2), pp. 363-380.

Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Dinsdale, R. M. and Guwy, A. J., 2008. The occurrence of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs in surface water in South Wales, UK. Water Research, 42 (13), pp. 3498-3518.

                                                                                     Back to top

Chiral pollutants

The enantiomers of chiral compounds can differ in interactions with chiral environments such as enzymes in the body. Therefore in biological systems they can be recognised as two different substances that elicit different responses: one enantiomer of the same drug may produce the desired therapeutic activity, while the other may be inactive or even toxic. The ratio of active/inactive enantiomer of the chiral drug can change significantly after its administration, metabolism in and excretion from the body. It can be subsequently altered during biological wastewater treatment and when the drug is already present in the environment. Biological processes can lead to stereoselective enrichment or depletion of enantiomeric composition of chiral drugs. Therefore the very same drug might reveal different activity and toxicity and this will depend on its origin and exposure to several factors governing its fate in the environment.

Existing reports on the presence and fate of pharmacologically active compounds, due to their non-enantioselective analysis, do not tackle the problem of their chirality. As a result, current understanding of environmental fate and effects of chiral drugs is limited, might be inaccurate and misleading, as it incorrectly assumes that enantiomers have identical environmental behaviour and toxicity. Therefore to understand and predict the mechanisms governing the fate of chiral drugs, their possible toxicity and impact on the environment, determination of enantiomeric composition of chiral drugs in environmental matrices is essential and constitutes a vital part of our research. This involves also the development of analytical methods capable of enantiomeric separation of chiral drugs and their application in environmental context.

Selected publications:

Petrie, B., Camacho-Munoz, M., Castrignano, E., Evans, S. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2015. Chiral Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Environmental Analysis of Pharmacologically Active Compounds. LCGC Europe, 2 (28), p. 151.

Evans, S. E., Davies, P., Lubben, A. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2015. Forthcoming. Determination of chiral pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in wastewater and sludge using microwave assisted extraction, solid-phase extraction and chiral liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta, 882, pp. 112-126.

Vazquez-Roig, P., Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Blasco, C. and Picó, Y., 2014.Stereoisomeric profiling of drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals in wastewaters of Valencia (Spain). Science of the Total Environment, 494-495, pp. 49-57.

Evans, S. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2014. Applications of chiral chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in the analysis of chiral pharmaceuticals in the environment. Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 1 (1), 1.

Bagnall, J., Malia, L., Lubben, A. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2013. Stereoselective biodegradation of amphetamine and methamphetamine in river microcosms. Water Research 47 (15), pp. 5708-5718.

López-Serna, R., Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Petrović, M. and Barceló, D., 2013. Multi-residue enantiomeric analysis of pharmaceuticals and their active metabolites in the Guadalquivir River basin (South Spain) by chiral liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 405 (18), pp. 5859-5873.

Bagnall, J.P., Evans, S.E., Wort, M.t., Lubben, A.T. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2012. Using chiral liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the analysis of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in surface and wastewater at the enantiomeric level. Journal of Chromatography A, 1249, pp. 115-129.

Kasprzyk-Hordern, B. and Baker, D. R., 2012. Estimation of community-wide drugs use via stereoselective profiling of sewage. Science of the Total Environment, 423, pp. 142-150.

Kasprzyk-Hordern, B. and Baker, D. R., 2012. Enantiomeric profiling of chiral drugs in wastewater and receiving waters. Environmental Science & Technology, 46 (3), pp. 1681-1691.

Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2010. Pharmacologically active compounds in the environment and their chirality. Chemical Society Reviews, 39 (11), pp. 4466-4503.

Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Kondakal, V. V. R. and Baker, D. R., 2010. Enantiomeric analysis of drugs of abuse in wastewater by chiral liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1217 (27), pp. 4575-4586.

Back to top

ENVIRONMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY

Environmental epidemiology

Wastewater-based epidemiology is a newly-emerging interdisciplinary field with a potential to provide an integrated real-time profiling of community-wide health and lifestyle through the analysis of human biomarkers in wastewater. The innovative research strategy of obtaining epidemiological information from wastewater is currently used to determine illicit drug use trends at community level via the analysis of urinary biomarkers in wastewater.

Selected publications:

Yang, Z., Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Frost, C., Estrela, P. and Thomas, K. V., 2015. Community Sewage Sensors for Monitoring Public Health. Environmental Science & Technology, 49 (10), pp. 5845-5846.

Yang, Z., Anglès d'Auriac, M., Goggins, S., Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Thomas, K. V., Frost, C. G. and Estrela, P., 2015. A novel DNA biosensor using a ferrocenyl intercalator applied to the potential detection of human population biomarkers in wastewater. Environmental Science & Technology, 49 (9), pp. 5609-17.

Yang, Z., Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Goggins, S., Frost, C. and Estrela, P., 2015. A novel immobilization strategy for electrochemical detection of cancer biomarkers: DNA-directed immobilization of aptamer sensors for sensitive detection of prostate specific antigen. Analyst, 140 (8), pp. 2628-2633.

Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Bijlsma, L., Castiglioni, S., Covaci, A., de Voogt, P., Emke, E., Hernandez, F., Ort, C.,Reid, M., van Nuijs, A. and Thomas, K., 2014. Wastewater-based epidemiology for public health monitoring. Water and Sewerage Journal, 4, p. 25.

Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Bijlsma, L., Castiglioni, S., Covaci, A., de Voogt, P., Emke, E., Hernandez, F., Ort, C.,Reid, M., van Nuijs, A. and Thimas, K., 2014. Wastewater-based epidemiology – the concept and historical perspectives. Environmental Industry Magazine, 33, pp. 145-151.

Ort, C., Banta-Green, C., Bijlsma, L., Castiglioni, S., Emke, E., Gartner, C., Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Reid, M. J., Rieckermann, J. and van Nuijs, A. L. N., 2014. Sewage-based epidemiology requires a truly transdisciplinary approach. GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society, 23 (3), pp. 266-268.

Vazquez-Roig, P., Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Blasco, C. and Picó, Y., 2014.Stereoisomeric profiling of drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals in wastewaters of Valencia (Spain). Science of the Total Environment, 494-495, pp. 49-57.

Emke, E., Evans, S., Kasprzyk-Hordern, B. and de Voogt, P., 2014. Enantiomer profiling of high loads of amphetamine and MDMA in communal sewage : A Dutch perspective. Science of the Total Environment, 487, pp. 666-672.

Jones, H.E., Hickman, M., Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Welton, N.J., Baker, D.R. and Ades, A.E., 2014. Illicit and pharmaceutical drug consumption estimated via wastewater analysis. Part B: Placing back-calculations in a formal statistical framework : Placing back-calculations in a formal statistical framework. Science of the Total Environment, 487, pp. 642-650.

Ort, C., van Nuijs, A. L. N., Berset, J.-D., Bijlsma, L., Castiglioni, S., Covaci, A., de Voogt, P., Emke, E., Fatta-Kassino, D., Griffiths, P., Hernández, F., González-Mariño, I., Grabic, R., Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Mastroianni, N., Meierjohann, A., Nefau, T., Östman, M., Pico, Y., Racamonde, I., Reid, M., Slobodnik, J., Terzic, S., Thomaidis, N. and Thomas, K. V., 2014. Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis. Addiction, 109 (8), pp. 1338-1352.

Castiglioni, S., Griffiths, P., Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Me, A. and Thomas, K. V., 2014. Forthcoming. Special Issue. Testing the waters : a selection of papers from the first international multidisciplinary conference on detecting illicit drugs in wastewater. Science of the Total Environment

Baker, D. R., Barron, L. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2014. Illicit and pharmaceutical drug consumption estimated via wastewater analysis. Part A : chemical analysis and drug use estimates. Science of the Total Environment, 487, pp. 629-641.

Castiglioni, S., Thomas, K. V., Kasprzyk-hordern, B., Vandam, L. and Griffiths, P., 2014. Testing wastewater to detect illicit drugs : State of the art, potential and research needs. Science of the Total Environment, 487, pp. 613-620.

Baker, D. R. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2013. Spatial and temporal occurrence of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in the aqueous environment and during wastewater treatment: New developments. Science of the Total Environment, 454-455, pp. 442-456.

Kasprzyk-Hordern, B. and Baker, D. R., 2012. Estimation of community-wide drugs use via stereoselective profiling of sewage. Science of the Total Environment, 423, pp. 142-150.

Thomas, K.V., Bijlsma, L., Castiglioni, S., Covaci, A., Emke, E., Grabic, R., Hernández, F., Karolak, S., Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Lindberg, R.H., Lopez de Alda, M., Meierjohann, A., Ort, C., Pico, Y., Quintana, J.B., Reid, M., Rieckermann, J., Terzic, S., van Nuijs, A.L.N. and de Voogt, P., 2012. Comparing illicit drug use in 19 European cities through sewage analysis. Science of the Total Environment, 432, pp. 432-439.

Baker, D.R., Očenášková, V., Kvicalova, M. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2012. Drugs of abuse in wastewater and suspended particulate matter : Further developments in sewage epidemiology. Environment International, 48, pp. 28-38.

Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Dinsdale, R. M. and Guwy, A. J., 2009. Illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in the environment - Forensic applications of environmental data. Part 1: Estimation of the usage of drugs in local communities. Environmental Pollution, 157 (6), pp. 1773-1777.

Back to top

Chemical markers of water contamination

Pharmacologically active compounds and personal care products used as chemical markers can be a good alternative for the verification of water contamination with sewage, which currently is determined using time-consuming microbial indicators, which lack selectivity.

Selected publications:

Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Dinsdale, R. M. and Guwy, A. J., 2009. Illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in the environment - Forensic applications of environmental data, Part 2: Pharmaceuticals as chemical markers of faecal water contamination. Environmental Pollution, 157 (6), pp. 1778-1786.

Back to top

WATER QUALITY/ WATER TREATMENT

Catalytic ozonation in water treatment

Ozone, due to its high oxidation and disinfection potential, has received much attention in water treatment technology. It is applied in order to improve taste and colour as well as to remove the organic and inorganic compounds in water. Despite the several advantages of using ozone, it has a few disadvantages which limit its application. The main ones are: relatively low solubility and stability in water. Because of both the high cost of ozone production and only partial oxidation of organic compounds present in water, the application of ozonation might not be feasible from an economic point of view. Advanced oxidation processes such as O3/H2O2, UV/O3, UV/H2O2, TiO2/UV, Fenton’s reagents and catalytic ozonation involve the generation of hydroxyl radicals, which are active oxidative species. However, their reactions are not selective and therefore more likely to be hindered by competitive reactions. For that reason, it is also desirable to investigate new methods based on molecular ozone reactions, which allow for both better ozone dissolution and stability in water due to the presence of non-polar materials such as: non-polar fluorinated hydrocarbon solvent or perfluorinated alumina. We are currently investigating the application of metal oxides and zeolites as heterogeneous catalysts for the ozonation of common water micropollutants.

Selected publications:

Ikhlaq, A., Brown, D. R. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2015. Catalytic ozonation for the removal of organic contaminants in water on alumina. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 165, pp. 408-418.

Ikhlaq, A., Brown, D. R. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2014. Catalytic ozonation for the removal of organic contaminants in water on ZSM-5 zeolites. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 154-155, pp. 110-122.

Ikhlaq, A., Brown, D. R. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2013. Mechanisms of catalytic ozonation: An investigation into superoxide ion radical and hydrogen peroxide formation during catalytic ozonation on alumina and zeolites in water. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 129, pp. 437-449.

Ikhlaq, A., Brown, D. R. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2012. Mechanisms of catalytic ozonation on alumina and zeolites in water: Formation of hydroxyl radicals. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 123-124, pp. 94-106.

Nawrocki, J. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2010. The efficiency and mechanisms of catalytic ozonation. Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 99 (1-2), pp. 27-42.

Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Raczyk-Stanislawiak, U., Swietlik, J. and Nawrocki, J., 2006. Catalytic ozonation of natural organic matter on alumina. Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 62 (3-4), pp. 345-358.

Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Andrzejewski, P. and Nawrocki, J., 2005. Catalytic ozonation of gasoline compounds in model and natural water in the presence of perfluorinated alumina bonded phases. Ozone-Science & Engineering, 27 (4), pp. 301-310.

Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2004. Chemistry of alumina, reactions in aqueous solution and its application in water treatment. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 110 (1-2), pp. 19-48.

Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Andrzejewski, P., Dabrowska, A., Czaczyk, K. and Nawrocki, J., 2004. MTBE, DIPE, ETBE and TAME degradation in water using perfluorinated phases as catalysts for ozonation process. Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 51 (1), pp. 51-66.

Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Dabrowska, A., Swietlik, J. and Nawrocki, J., 2004. Ozonation enhancement with nonpolar bonded alumina phases. Ozone-Science & Engineering, 26 (4), pp. 367-380.

Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Dabrowska, A., Swietlik, J. and Nawrocki, J., 2004. The application of the perfluorinated bonded alumina phase for natural organic matter catalytic ozonation. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science, 3 (1), pp. 41-50.

Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Ziolek, M. and Nawrocki, J., 2003. Catalytic ozonation and methods of enhancing molecular ozone reactions in water treatment. Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 46 (4), pp. 639-669.

Kasprzyk-Hordern, B. and Nawrocki, J., 2003. The feasibility of using a perfluorinated bonded alumina phase in the ozonation process. Ozone-Science & Engineering, 25 (3), pp. 185-197.

Back to top

ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

We develop methods utilising primarily chromatographic techniques and mass spectrometry aiming at environmental and forensic applications. We are also interested in new approaches to sample preparation.

Selected publications:

Petrie, B., Camacho-Munoz, M., Castrignano, E., Evans, S. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2015. Chiral Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Environmental Analysis of Pharmacologically Active Compounds. LCGC Europe, 2 (28), p. 151.

Evans, S. E., Davies, P., Lubben, A. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2015. Forthcoming. Determination of chiral pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in wastewater and sludge using microwave assisted extraction, solid-phase extraction and chiral liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta, 882, pp. 112-126.

Evans, S. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2014. Applications of chiral chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in the analysis of chiral pharmaceuticals in the environment. Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 1 (1), 1.

López-Serna, R., Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Petrović, M. and Barceló, D., 2013. Multi-residue enantiomeric analysis of pharmaceuticals and their active metabolites in the Guadalquivir River basin (South Spain) by chiral liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 405 (18), pp. 5859-5873.

Bagnall, J.P., Evans, S.E., Wort, M.T., Lubben, A.T. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2012. Using chiral liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the analysis of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in surface and wastewater at the enantiomeric level. Journal of Chromatography A, 1249, pp. 115-129.

Baker, D. R. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2011. Critical evaluation of methodology commonly used in sample collection, storage and preparation for the analysis of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in surface water and wastewater by solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (44), pp. 8036-8059.

Baker, D. R. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2011. Multi-residue determination of the sorption of illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals to wastewater suspended particulate matter using pressurised liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (44), pp. 7901-7913.

Baker, D. R. and Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., 2011. Multi-residue analysis of drugs of abuse in wastewater and surface water by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1218 (12), pp. 1620-1631.

Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Kondakal, V. V. R. and Baker, D. R., 2010. Enantiomeric analysis of drugs of abuse in wastewater by chiral liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1217 (27), pp. 4575-4586.

Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Dinsdale, R. M. and Guwy, A. J., 2008. Multiresidue methods for the analysis of pharmaceuticals, personal care products and illicit drugs in surface water and wastewater by solid-phase extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 391 (4), pp. 1293-1308.

Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Dinsdale, R. M. and Guwy, A. J., 2008. The effect of signal suppression and mobile phase composition on the simultaneous analysis of multiple classes of acidic/neutral pharmaceuticals and personal care products in surface water by solid-phase extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography-negative electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Talanta, 74 (5), pp. 1299-1312.

Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Dinsdale, R. M. and Guwy, A. J., 2007. Multi-residue method for the determination of basic/neutral pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in surface water by solid-phase extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1161 (1-2), pp. 132-145.

Back to top

Dr Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, University of Bath, Department of Chemistry, Bath BA2 &AY, UK, mailto:B.Kasprzyk-Hordern@bath.ac.uk