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PS50052: Economic & Environmental Psychology (6 credits )

Alan Lewis & David Weltman

About the course

This unit concerns the social psychology of economic and environmental issues. For example, why do some people donate money to environmental causes or buy 'green' products? Why do people variously become political activists, tax evaders or moral crusaders in the market place? Is the heart of environmental degradation located in systems of ethics, values and beliefs that subordinate the environment to human wants? The primary focus of the course is in how people make sense of the world, how these ideas are constructed, where they come from, and the functions that they serve. 

So profound is the human impact on the environment that natural science knowledge of ecological processes will be incomplete until the human dimensions of the system are better understood. To this end, within Environmental & Economic Psychology, environmental phenomena are situated in the context of the economic, institutional and policy forces that shape it. A framework is developed for addressing environmental and economic questions by drawing on real world issues, field experiments, and the experiences and knowledge of the course participants. 
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Course Objectives

  1. Understand the range of social science research and literature that has relevance for environmental and economic psychologists.
  2. Be able to find this information and apply it to a problem. 
  3. To critically evaluate environmental information and help implement environmental interventions. 
  4. To illustrate how specific concepts have been applied to environmental issues, for example: satisfaction, conflict, values, attitudes, and discourse.
  5. To recognize the influence of socio-demographic and cultural differences related to environmental and economic decisions. 
  6. To show how psychological factors influence economic decision making and economic behaviour generally.
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Organisation

12 two-hour lectures over a 13 week period, plus a series of one-hour seminars. Some lectures will be presented by guest speakers. 

TIME: Thursdays 10.15-13.15 

LOCATION 2 South Board Room

Course Programme

WEEK 1 (Oct 9th): Introduction to Economic Psychology. 

WEEK 2 (Oct 16th): Economic Socialization. 

WEEK 3 (Oct 23rd): Psychology of Selling.

WEEK 4 (Oct 30th): Money Technology and Happiness 

WEEK 5 (Nov 6th): Stock Market Psychology 

WEEK 6 (Nov 13th): The Philosophy and Psychology of Human Need

Environmental Psychology

Click on the week to go to the readings for that lecture.

WEEK 7 (Nov 20th): Economic Valuation of Public Goods 

WEEK 8 (Nov 27th): Environmental Preferences and the Concept of 'Nature'

WEEK 9 (Dec 4th): Sense of Place

WEEK 10 (Dec 11th): Risk Perception

WEEK 14 (Jan 8th): The Language of the Environment

WEEK 15 (Jan 15th): Revision Session

Working in pairs there will be 4 student-led seminars following the lectures on Weeks 4 & 5; 9 & 10 and based on the following topic areas: economic socialization, debt, risk, environmental aesthetics and preferences, and economic valuation of the environment. Students should seek to use these seminars to develop group discussion (e.g., through activities, audio-visual aids, etc.) rather than follow a lecture format. 
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Assessment

You will be required to sit a 2-hour written examination in exam week (starting January 19th). This exam constitutes the course assessment. 
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Reading List

Reading materials will be placed on reserve in the library and at the offprint library

A-B

Adorno, T. W., Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D.J. & Sanford. R.N., The Authoritarian Personality, Harper & Row, 1950. 

Almond, G. & Verba, S., The Civic Culture, Little Brown, 1965. 

Andrews, M., Lifetimes of Commitment, Cambridge, 1991. 

Arnot, M. & Weiner, G., Gender and the Politics of Schooling, Routledge, 1987. 

Billig, M., Ideology and Opinions, Sage, 1991. 

Billig, M., Arguing and Thinking, Cambridge, 1987. 

Bruner, J.S. & Haste, H. (eds), Making Sense; the child's construction of the world, Methuen, 1987. 

Burgoyne, C. & Lewis, A., "Distributive justice in Marriage: equality or equity", Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 1994, 412, 101-114. 

Burgoyne, C., "Money in Marriage", The Sociological Review, 28, 634-665. 
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C-F

Cullis, J.,Lewis, .A. & Winnett, A. 'Paying to be good?UK ethical investments, Kyklos, 45, 3-24, 1992. 

Colby, A. & Damon, W., Some Do Care; contemporary lives of moral commitment, Free Press, 1992. 

Damon, W., The Moral Child, Free Press, 1988. 

Dittmar, H., The Social Psychology of Material Possessions, 1992. 

Eiser, J.R., Social Psychology, Cambridge, 1986. 

Etzioni, A., The Moral DimensionL Towards a new economics

Farr, T. & Moscovici, S., Social Representations, Cambridge, 1984. 

Fogelman, E., Courage and Conscience, Doubleday, 1994. 

Fraser, C. & Gaskell, G. (eds), Attitudes, Opinions and Representations: Some psychological analyses of widespread beliefs, 1990. 

Frey, B. Not Just for the Money,An Economic Theory of Personal Motivation, Elgar,1997 

Furnham, A., Lay Theories, Pergamon, 1988. 

Furnham, A. & Argyle, M. The Psychology of Money, Routledge, 1996. 
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G-H

Gilligan, C., In a Different Voice, Harvard 2nd ed, 1994. 

Gilligan, C., Ward, J.V. & Taylor, J.M., Mapping the Moral Domain, Harvard, 1988. 

Haan, N., Smith, B. & Block, J., "Moral reasoning of young adults", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 10, 183-201, 1968. 

Harré, R., Social Being, Blackwells, 1993. 

Harré, R., & Gillett, J., The Discursive Mind, Blackwells, 1994. 

Haste, H., The Sexual Metaphor, Harvester, 1993. 

Haste, H. & Torney Purta, J. (eds), The Development of Political Understanding, Jossey Bass, 1992. 

Hewstone, M., Stroebe, W., Codol, J-P & Stephenson, G., Introduction to Social Psychology, Blackwells, 1988. 
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K-L

Kagan, J. & Lamb, S., The Emergence of Morality in Young Children, Chicago, 1987. 

Kitay, E.F. & Meyers, D.T., Women in Moral Theory, Rowman and Littlefield, 1987. 

Kohlberg, L. & Candee, D., "The relationship of moral judgement to moral action" in Kurtines, W. & Gewirtz, J., Morality, Moral Behaviour and Moral Development, Wiley, 1984. 

Kurtines, W. & Gewirtz, J., Morality, Moral Behaviour and Moral Development, Wiley, 1984. 

Lea, S., Webley, P. & Tarpy, R., The Individual in the Economy, 1987. 

Lewis, A., The Psychology of Taxation, 1982.

Lewis, A., Morals,Markets and Money, 2002.

Lewis, A. , 'Economic Beliefs' in Fraser.C. & Gaskell, G. (Eds.) Attitudes,Opinions and Representations, Oxford, 1990. 

Lewis, A. & Cullis, J. 'Ethical investments: Preferences and morality', Journal of Behavioural Economics, 19,4 395-411, 1990. 

Lewis, A. & Warneryd, K-E (eds), Ethics and Economic Affairs, 1994. 

Lewis, A., Webley, P. & Furnham, A., The New Economic Mind: the social psychology of economic behaviour, 1995. 

Lewis, A. & Mackenzie,C. 'Green and ethical investing:Can it make a difference'. In Warhurst, A. (ed) Towards an Environment Research Agenda, Macmillan, 1999. 

Lewis, A., Mackenzie, C., Webley,P. & Winnett, A. 'Morals and Markets: Some policy implications of ethical investing'. In Taylor- Gooby, P. (ed) Choice and Public Policy, Macmillan,1998. 

Lunt, P. & Furnham, A. (eds.) Economic Sociolization, Edward Elgar, 1996. 
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M-W

Maital ,S. & Maital,S., (eds) Economics and Psychology, Elgar, 1993. 

Pahl , J. Money and Marriage, Macmillan, 1989. 

Pahl, J. 'His money,her money', Journal of Economic Psychology, 16,3 (special issue), 361-376, 1995. 

Pahl, J. Invisible Money. Policy Press, 1999. 

Potter, J. & Wetherell, M., Discourse and Social Psychology, Sage, 1987.

Royal Commision on Environmental Pollution. Twenty-first Report. Setting Environmental Standards, HMSO, Cm 4053. 

Scott, A., et.al. Student Debt. 2001. 

Smith, N.C., Morality and the Market, 1990. 

Webley, P., et.al. The Economic Psychology of Everyday Life. 2001 
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Recommended Journals

* The Journal of Economic Psychology.( See in particular editions on household decision making, economic socialization and fiscal psychology ). 

* The Journal of Economic Perspectives.

*Journal of Socio-Economics (formerly the Journal of Behavioural Economics).
 

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Environmental Psychology

WEEK 7: Economic Valuation of Public Goods

Beckerman, W. & Pasek, J. (1997). Plural values and environmental valuation. Environmental Values, 6, 65-86. 

Bishop, R. C., Champ, P. A., & Mullarkey, D. J. (1995). Contingent valuation. In D. W. Bromley (Ed.), Environmental Economics. MT: Blackwell. 

Cox, S. (1985). No tragedy on the commons. Environmental Ethics, 7, 49-61.

Fischoff, B. (1991). Value elicitation: Is there anything in there? American Psychologist, 46, 835-847. 

Fiske, A. P. & Tetlock, P. E. (1997). Taboo trade-offs: Reactions to transactions that transgress the spheres of justice. Political Psychology, 18, 255-297. 

Foster, J. (1997). Valuing nature?: Economics, ethics and environment. London: Routledge.

Fox, D. R. (1985). Psychology, ideology, utopia, and the commons. American Psychologist, 40, 48-58.

Fox, D. R. (1986). Beyond individualism and centralization. American Psychologist, 41, 231-232.

Hanley, N. & Milne, J. (1996). Ethical beliefs and behaviour in contingent valuation surveys. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 39, 255-272. 

Hardin, G. (1968). The tragedy of the commons. Science, 162, 1243-1248. 

Jacobs, M. (1994). The limits to neoclassicism: Towards and institutional environmental economics. In M. Redclift and T. Benton (Eds.), Social Theory and the Global Environment. London: Routledge.

Jorgensen, B. S., & Syme, G. J. (2000). Protest responses and willingness to pay: Attitude toward paying for stormwater pollution abatement. Ecological Economics, 33, 251-265. 

Jorgensen, B. S., Syme, G. J., Bishop, B. J., & Nancarrow, B. E. (1999). Protest responses in contingent valuation. Environmental & Resource Economics, 14, 131-150. 

Levine, B. L. (1986). The tragedy of the commons and the comedy of community: The commons in history. Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 81-99. 

Lutz, M. A. & Lux, K. (1988). Humanistic Economics: The New Challenge. NY: Bootstrap Press. 

Mazotta, M. J. & Kline, J. (1995). Environmental philosophy and the concept of nonuse value. Land Economics, 71, 244-249. 

Oberholzer-Gee, F., Bohnet, I. & Frey, B, S. (1997). Fairness and competence in democratic decisions. Public Choice, 91, 89-105.

O'Conner, M. & Spash, C. (1999). Valuation and the Environment: Theory, Method and Practice. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. 

Pearce, D., Markandya, A. & Barber, E. B. (2000) Economic valuation of environmental goods. In J. Benson, Environmental Ethics: An Introduction with Readings. London: Routledge. [This is an extract from Pearce et al., 1989, Blueprint for a green economy, Earthscan] 

Ritov, I. & Kahneman, D. (1997). How people value the environment: Attitudes versus economic values. In M. H. Bazerman, D. M. Messick, A. E. Tenbrunsel, & K. A. Wade-Benzoni (Eds.), Environment, Ethics and Behaviour: The Psychology of Environmental Valuation and Degradation. San Francisco: New Lexington Press.

Sagoff, M. (1988). The Economy of the Earth: Philosophy, Law and the Environment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Sagoff, M. (1994). Should preferences count? Land Economics, 70, 127-144. 

Sagoff, M. (1998). Aggregation and deliberation in valuing environmental public goods: A look beyond contingent pricing. Ecological Economics, 24, 213-230.

Schade , D. A. & Payne, J. W. (1994). How people respond to contingent valuation questions: A verbal protocol analysis of willingness to pay for an environmental regulation. Journal of Environmental Economics & Management, 26, 88-109. 

Shipee, G. (1981) Energy policy making and Edney's dilemma. American Psychologist, 36, 216-217.

Splash, C. L. (2000) Multiple value expression in contingent valuation: Economics and Ethics. Environment, Science and Technology, 34, 1433-1438.

Stern, P. C. (1986) Toward a social psychology of solidarity. American Psychologist, 41, 229-231.

Syme, G. J., Roberts, E. & McLeod, P. B. (1990). Combining willingness to pay and social indicator methodology in valuing public services: An example from agricultural protection. Journal of Economic Psychology, 11, 365-381. 
 

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WEEK 8: Environmental Preferences and the Concept of 'Nature'

Altman, I. & Rogoff, B. (1987). World views in psychology: Trait, interactional, organismic, and transactional perspectives. In D. Stokols and I. Altman (eds.), Handbook of Environmental Psychology. NY: John Wiley & Sons. 

Buss, D. M. & Craik, K. H. (1983) Contemporary worldviews: Personal and policy implications. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 12, 57-63. 

Fishwick, L. &  Vining, J. (1992). Toward a phenomenology of recreation place. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 12, 57-63. 

Fredrickson, L. M. & Anderson, D. H. (1999). A qualitative exploration of the wilderness experience as a source of spiritual inspiration. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 19, 21-39. 

Gagnon Thompson, S. C. & Barton, M. A. (1994). Ecocentric and anthropocentric attitudes toward the environment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 14, 149-157. 

Gladwin, T. N., Newburry, W. E., & Reiskein, E. D. (1997). Why is the northern elite mind biased against community, the environment, and a sustainable future? In M. H. Bazerman, D. M. Messick, A. E. Tenbrunsel, & K. A. Wade-Benzoni (Eds.), Environment, Ethics and Behaviour: The Psychology of Environmental Valuation and Degradation. San Francisco: New Lexington Press.

Greider, T. & Garkovich, L. (1994). Landscapes: The social construction of nature and the environment. Rural Sociology, 59, 1-24.

Harrison, C. M. & Burgess, J. (1994). Social constructions of nature: A case study of conflicts over the development of Rainham Marches. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 19, 291-310. 

Kahn, P. H. (1999). The human relationship with nature: Development and culture. London: MIT Press.

Kaplan, R. & Kaplan, S. (1989). The experience of nature: A psychological perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Kaplan, R., Kaplan, S., & Ryan, R. L. (1998). With people in mind: Design and management of everyday nature. Washington D.C.: Island Press.

Leopold, A. (1996). Excerpts from A Sand County almanac, with essays in conversation from Round River. In F. L. Reinhardt & R. H. Vietor (Eds.), Business management and the natural environment. Cincinnati, Ohio: South-Western College.

Lyons, E. (1983). Demographic correlates of landscape preference. Environment and Behaviour, 15, 487-511. 

Macnaughten, P. and Urry, J. (1998) Contested Natures. London: Sage. 

Macnaughten, P., Brown, R. & Reicher, S. (1992). On the nature of nature: Experimental studies in the power of rhetoric. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 2, 42-61. 

Mazotta, M. J. & Kline, J. (1995). Environmental philosophy and the concept of nonuse value. Land Economics, 71, 244-249. 

Merchant, C. (1992). Radical ecology: The search for a liveable world. NY: Routledge.

Purcell, A. T., Lamb, R. J., Mainardi Peron, E. & Falchero, S. (1994) Preference or preferences for landscape? Journal of Environmental Psychology, 14, 195-209. 

Sarason, S. B. (1981) Worldviews (Chapter 3) Psychology misdirected. NY: Free Press.

Schultz, P., Zelezny, L. & Dalrymple, N. J. (2000). A multinational perspective on the relation between Judeo-Christian religious beliefs and attitudes of environmental concern. Environment and Behaviour, 32, 576-591. 

Slovic, P. (1995). The construction of preference. American Psychologist, 50, 364-371.

Soper, K. (1995). What is nature?. Oxford: Blackwell. 

Stern, P. C. & Dietz, T. (1994). The value basis of Environmental Concern. Journal of Social Issues, 50, 65-84. 

Stokols, D. (1990). Instrumental and spiritual views of people-environment relations. American Psychologist, 45, 641-646 

Tetlock P.E. & Fiske A.P. (1997). Taboo trade-offs: Reactions to transactions that transgress the spheres of justice. Political Psychology, 18, 255-297

Ulrich, R. S. (1981). Natural versus urban scenes: Some psychophysiological effects. Environment and Behaviour, 13, 523-556.

Ulrich, R. S., Simmons, R. F.., Losito, B. D.., Fiorito, E., Miles, M. a. & Zelson, M. (1991). Stress recovery during exposure to natural and urban environments. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 11, 201-230.

Vining, J., Daniel, T. C., & Schroeder, W. (1984). Predicting scenic values in forested residential landscapes. Journal of Leisure Research, 16, 124-135.

Zajonc, R. B. (1980) Feeling and thinking: Preferences need no inferences. American Psychologist, 35, 151-175. 
 

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WEEK 9: Sense of Place

Altman, I. & Low, S. (1992). Place attachment. NY: Plenum Press. 

Bonaiuto, M. & Bonnes, M. (1996). Multiplace analysis of the urban environment: A comparison between a large and a small Italian city. Environment and Behaviour, 28, 699-747. 

Bonaiuto, M., Breakwell, G. M. & Cano, I. (1996). Identity processes and threat: The effects of nationalism and local identity upon perception of beach pollution. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 6, 157-175.

Bragg, E. A. (1996). Towards ecological self: Deep ecology meets constructionist self theory. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 16, 93-108. 

Bunston, T. & Breton, M. (1992). Homes and homeless women. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 12, 149-162

Canter, D. (1986). Putting situations in their place. In A. Furnham (Ed.), Social behaviour in context. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 

Cuba, L. & Hummon, D. M. (1993). A place to call home: Identification with dwelling, community and region. Sociological Quarterly, 34, 111-131.

Dixon, J. & Durrheim, K. (2000). Displacing place-identity: A discursive approach to locating self and other. British Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 27-44.

Guliani, M. V. & Feldman, R. (1993). Place attachment in a developmental and cultural context. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13, 267-274.

Harris, P. B., Brown, B. B. & Werner, C. M. (1996). Privacy regulation and place attachment: Predicting attachments to a student family housing facility. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 16, 287-301.

Hay, R. (1998).  Sense of place in developmental context. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 18, 5-29. 

Hidalgo, C. M. & Hernandez, B. (2001). Place attachment: Conceptual and empirical questions. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21, 273-281. 

Korpela, K. & Hartig, T. (1996). Restorative qualities of favourite places. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 16, 221-233.

Lalli, M. (1992). Urban-related identity: Theory, measurement, and empirical findings. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 12, 285-303.

McAndrew, F. T. (1998). The measurement of 'rootedness' and the prediction of attachment to home-towns in college students. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 18, 409-417. 

Moore, R. L., & Graefe, A. R. (1994). Attachments to recreation settings: the case of rail-trail users.  Leisure Sciences, 16, 17-31.

Proshansky, H. M. (1978). The city and self-identity. Environment & Behaviour, 10, 147-169. 

Proshansky, H. M., Fabian, A. K., & Kaminoff, R. (1983). Place-identity: Physical world socialization of the self. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 3, 57-83. 

Relph, E. (1976). Place and placelessness. London: Pion. 

Rivlin, L. G. (1982). Group membership and place meanings in an urban neighbourhood. Journal of Social Issues, 38, 75-93. 

Shamai, S. (1991). Sense of place: An empirical measurement. Geoforum, 22, 347-358. 

 Stokols, D. (1990). Instrumental and spiritual views of people-environment relations. American Psychologist, 45, 641-646.

Taylor, R. B., Gottfredson, S. D., & Brower, S. (1984). Neighbourhood naming as an index of attachment to place. Population and Environment, 6, 103-125. 

Twigger-Ross, C. L. & Uzzell, D. L. (1996). Place and identity processes. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 16, 205-220.

Tuan, Y. F. (1974). Topophilia: A study of environmental perception, attitudes and values. NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Williams, D. R., Patterson, M. E., Roggenbuck, J. W., & Watson, A. E. (1992). Beyond the commodity metaphor: Examining emotional and symbolic attachment to place. Leisure Sciences, 14, 29-46. 
 

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WEEK 10: Risk Perception

Adam, B. (1999). Industrial food for thought: Timescapes of risk. Environmental Values, 8, 219-238.

Adam, B., Beck, U. & van Loon, J. (2000). The risk society and beyond: Critical issues for social theory. London: Sage.

Baum, A. & Fleming, I. (1993). Implications for psychological research on stress and technological accidents. American Psychologist, 48, 665-672. 

Beck, U. (1995). Ecological enlightenment: Essays on the politics of the risk society. NJ: Humanities Press. 

Brann, P. & Foddy, M. (1987). Trust and consumption of a deteriorating common resource. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 31, 615-630. 

Brenot, J., Bonnefous, S. & Marris, C. (1998). Testing the cultural theory of risk in France. Risk Analysis, 18, 729-739.

Fischoff, B. (1997). Ranking risks. In M. H. Bazerman, D. M. Messick, A. E. Tenbrunsel, & K. A. Wade-Benzoni (Eds.), Environment, Ethics and Behaviour: The Psychology of Environmental Valuation and Degradation. San Francisco: New Lexington Press.

Fischoff, B., Slovic, P. Lichtenstien, S., Read, S., & Coombs, B. (1978). How safe is safe enough? Policy Sciences, 9, 127-152. 

Freudenburg, W. R. (1988). Perceived risk, real risk: Social science and the art of probabilistic risk assessment. Science, 242, 44-49. 

Freudenburg, W. R. (1993). Risk and recreancy: Weber, the division of labour, and the rationality of risk perceptions. Social Forces, 71, 909-932. 

Freudenburg, W. R. & Pastor, S. K. (1992). NIMBYs and LULUs: Stalking the syndromes. Journal of Social Issues, 48, 9-61.

Irwin, A., Simmons, P. & Walker, G. (1999). Faulty environments and risk reasoning: The local understanding of industrial hazards. Environment and Planning A, 22, 1239-1258.

Kemp, R. (1990). Why not in my backyard: A radical interpretation of public opposition to the deep disposal of radioactive waste in the United Kingdom. Environment and Planning A, 22, 1239-1258.

Kuhn, K. M. (2000). Message format and audience values: Interactive effects of uncertainty information and environmental attitudes on perceived risk. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 20, 41-51. 

Marris, C., Langford, I. H. & O'Riordan, T. (1998). A quantitative test of the cultural theory of risk perceptions: Comparison with the psychometric paradigm. Risk Analysis, 18, 635-647. 

Pidgeon, N. & Beattie, J. (1998). The psychology of risk and uncertainty. In P. Calow (Ed.), Handbook of Environmental Risk Assessment and Management. Oxford: Blackwell Science. 

Renn, O., Burns, W. J., Kasperson, J. X., Kasperson, R. E. & Slovic, P. (1992). The social amplification of risk: Theoretical foundations and empirical applications. Journal of Social Issues, 48, 137-160.

Sarason, S. B. (1984). If it can be studied or developed, should it be? American Psychologist, 39, 477-485.

Schwartz, M. & Thompson, M. (1990). Divided we stand: redefining politics, technology and social choice. Philadelphia: University of Philadelphia Press.

Sjoberg, L. (1996). A discussion of the limitations of the psychometric and cultural theory approaches to risk perception. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 68, 219-225.

Sjoberg, L. (1999). Risk perception in western Europe. Ambio, 28, 543-549. 

Slovic, P. (1987). Perception of risk. Science, 236, 280-285.

Slovic, P. (1997). Trust, emotion, sex, politics and science: Surveying the risk-assessment battlefield. In M. H. Bazerman, D. M. Messick, A. E. Tenbrunsel, & K. A. Wade-Benzoni (Eds.), Environment, Ethics and Behaviour: The Psychology of Environmental Valuation and Degradation. San Francisco: New Lexington Press.

Slovic, P., Flynn, J. H. & Layman, M. (1991). Perceived risk, trust and the politics of nuclear waste. Science, 254(5038), 1603-1607.

Sparks, P. Shepherd, R., & Frewer, L. J. (1995). Assessing and structuring attitudes toward the use of gene technology in food production: The role of perceived ethical obligation. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 16, 267-285. 

Steg, L. & Sievers, I. (2000). Cultural theory and individual perceptions of environmental risks. Environment & Behaviour, 32, 250-269.

Straughan, R. (1990). Genetic manipulation for food production: Social and ethical issues for consumers. British Food Journal, 92, 13-26. 

Tansey, J. & O'Riordan (1999). Cultural theory and risk: a review. Health, Risk and Society, 1, 71-90. 

Thompson, L., Ellis, R. & Wildavsky, A. (1990). Cultural theory. CO: Westview.

Trettin, L. & Musham, C. (2000). Is trust a realistic goal of environmental communication? Environment and Behaviour, 32, 410-426. 

Turner, G. & Wynne, B. (1992). Risk communication: A literature review and some implications for biotechnology. In J. Durant (Ed.), Biotechnology in Public: A Review of Recent Research. London: Science Museum. 
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